Resources for educators, researchers, and further reading.
Sonoma State Hospital Narrative and Visual History. Justin Joque, Kayla Kingston, Nicole Novak, Alexandra Minna Stern, Kate O'Connor, and Jacqueline Wernimont.
Eugenic Rubicon: California's Sterilization Stories. Jacqueline Wernimont and Alexandra Minna Stern.
"The Movement that Inspired the Holocaust," TEDx Animation
Trace the history of the eugenics movement in the US, and discover how the belief in ideal genetics led to forced sterilizations.
Since ancient Greece, humans have controlled populations via reproduction, retaining some traits and removing others. But in the 19th century, a new scientific movement dedicated to this endeavor emerged: eugenics. Scientists believed they could improve society by ensuring that only desirable traits were passed down. Alexandra Minna Stern and Natalie Lira detail the history of eugenics in the US.
Lesson by Alexandra Minna Stern and Natalie Lira, directed by Héloïse Dorsan-Rachet.
The following list is not exhaustive, but it does provide some resources and further reading for context, research, and general information.
Are there any articles or related scholarship we should know about? You can submit your suggestions via our Google Form here.
George C. Alter, Myron P. Gutmann, Susan Hautaniemi Leonard, and Emily R. Merchant. “Longitudinal Analysis of Historical-Demographic Data.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 52, no. 4 (Spring 2012): 503–517.
Michelle Caswell. “Defining Human Rights Archives: Introduction to the Special Double Issue on Archives and Human Rights.” Archival Science 14 (2014): 207–213.
Michelle Caswell. “Toward a Survivor-Centered Approach to Records Documenting Human Rights Abuse: Lessons from Community Archives.” Archival Science 14 (2014): 307–322.
J.T.H. Connor. “The ‘Human Subject,’ ‘Vulnerable Populations,’ and Medical History: The Problem of Presentism and Discourse of Bioethics.” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History (2017).
Hariz Halilovich. “Reclaiming Erased Lives: Archives, Records, and Memories in Post-War Bosnia and the Bosnian Diaspora.” Archival Science 14 (2014): 231–247.
Derek L. Hansen, Patrick Schone, Douglas Corey, Matthew Reid, and Jake Gehring. “Quality Control Mechanisms for Crowdsourcing: Peer Review, Arbitration, and Expertise at FamilySearch Indexing.” Computer Supported Cooperative Work (2013).
Derek Hansen, Jake Gehring, Patrick Schone, and Matthew Reid. “Improving Indexing Efficiency and Quality: Comparing A-B-Arbitrate and Peer Review.” (2013).
David Kaye. “Archiving Justice: Conceptualizing the Archives of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia.” Archival Science 14 (2014): 381–396.
Vani Natarajan and Hannah Mermelstein. “Knowledge, Access, and Resistance: A Conversation on Librarians and Archivists to Palestine.” in Melissa Morrone, ed., Informed Agitation: Library and Information Skills in Social Justice Movements and Beyond. Sacramento: Library Juice Press, 2014. 274–258.
Geoffrey Robinson. “Break the Rules, Save the Records: Human Rights Archives and the Search for Justice in East Timor.” Archival Science 14 (2014): 323–343.
Amanda Strauss. “Treading the Ground of Contested Memory: Archivists and the Human Rights Movement in Chile.” Archival Science 15 (2015): 369–397.
Katherine M. Wisser and Joel A. Blanco-Rivera. “Surveillance, Documentation, and Privacy: An International Comparative Analysis of State Intelligence Records.” Archival Science 16 (2016): 125–147.
History of Eugenics (General)
Morton Birnbaum. “Eugenic Sterilization: A Discussion of Certain Legal, Medical, and Moral Aspects of Present Practices in our Public Mental Institutions.” Journal of American Medical Association 175, no. 2 (1961): 951–958.
Rosalind Pollack Petchesky. “Reproduction, Ethics, and Public Policy: The Federal Sterilization Regulations.” The Hastings Center Report 9, no. 5 (October 1979): 29–41.
Laura I. Appleman. “Deviancy, Dependency, and Disability: The Forgotten History of Eugenics and Mass Incarceration.” Duke Law Journal 68, no. 3 (December 2018).
John P. Radford. “Sterilization Versus Segregation: Control of the ‘Feebleminded’, 1900–1938.” Social Science Medicine 33, no. 4 (1991): 449–458.
Darrell Steffensmeier and Stephen Demuth. “Does Gender Modify the Effects of Race-Ethnicity on Criminal Sanctioning? Sentences for Male and Female White, Black, and Hispanic Defendants.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22 (2006): 241–261.
Carolyn B. Sufrin, Jacqueline P. Tulsky, Joseph Goldenson, Kelly S. Winter, and Deborah L. Cohan. “Emergency Contraception for Newly Arrested Women: Evidence for an Unrecognized Public Health Opportunity.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 87, no. 2 (2009).
Della J. Winters and Adria Ryan McLaughlin. “Soft Sterilization: Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in the Carceral State.” Journal of Women and Social Work 35, no. 2 (2020): 218–230.
Disability and Reproductive Autonomy
Jeffrey P. Baker and Birgit Lang. “Eugenics and the Origins of Autism.” Pediatrics 104, no. 2 (August 2017).
Him Mark Lai, Genny Lim, and Judy Yung, eds. Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910–1940. 2nd ed. University of Washington Press, 2014.
Natalia Molina. “Fear and Loathing in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands: The History of Mexicans as Medical Menaces, 1848 to the Present.” Aztlán: A Journal of Chicano Studies 41, no. 2 (Fall 2016).
Racial and Ethnic Disparities of Eugenics and Reproductive Care
Barbara Gurr. “Mothering in the Borderlands: Policing Native American Women’s Reproductive Healthcare.” International Journal of Sociology of the Family 37, no. 1 (Spring 2011).
Josephine Jacobs and Maria Stanfors. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in U.S. Women’s Choice of Reversible Contraceptives, 1955–2010.” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 45, no. 3 (2013): 139–147.
Natalie Lira. ““Of Low Grade Mexican Parentage’: Race, Gender and Eugenic Sterilization in California, 1928–1952. Ph.D. diss. University of Michigan. 2015.
Dorothy E. Roberts. Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. New York: Vintage Books, 1999.
Corinne H. Rocca and Cynthia C. Harper. “Do Racial and Ethnic Differences in Contraceptive Attitudes and Knowledge Explain Disparities in Method Use?” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 44, no. 3 (2012): 150–158.
Gregory W. Rutecki. “Forced Sterilization of Native Americans: Later Twentieth Century Physician Cooperation with National Eugenic Policies?” Ethics and Medicine 27, no. 1 (Spring 2011).
Grace Shih, Eric Vittinghoff, Jody Steinauer, and Christine Dehlendorf. “Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Method Choice in California.” Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 43, no. 3 (2011): 173–180.
Karina M. Shreffler, Julia McQuillan, Arthur L. Greil, and David R. Johnson. “Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns.” Social Science Research Journal 50 (March 2015): 31–45.
Thomas W. Volscho. “Racism and Disparities in Women’s Use of the Depo-Provera Injection in the Contemporary USA.” Critical Sociology 37, no. 5 (2011): 673–688.
Amy Vogel. “Regulating Degeneracy: Eugenic Sterilization in Iowa, 1911–1977.” The Annals of Iowa 54 (Winter 1995).
Alex Wellerstein. “States of Eugenics: Institutions and Practices of Compulsory Sterilization in California.” in Sheila Jasanoff, ed., Reframing Rights: Bioconstitutionalism in the Genetic Age. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011, 29–58.